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Josiah Flores
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Blowfish: A symmetric 64-bit block cipher invented by Bruce Schneier; optimized for 32-bit processors with large data caches, it is significantly faster than DES on a Pentium/PowerPC-class machine. Key lengths can vary from 32 to 448 bits in length. Blowfish, available freely and intended as a substitute for DES or IDEA, is in use in a large number of products.




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In March 2016, the SSL DROWN (Decrypting RSA with Obsolete and Weakened eNcryption) attack was announced. DROWN works by exploiting the presence of SSLv2 to crack encrypted communications and steal information from Web servers, email servers, or VPN sessions. You might have read above that SSLv2 fell out of use by the early 2000s and was formally deprecated in 2011. This is true. But backward compatibility often causes old software to remain dormant and it seems that up to one-third of all HTTPS sites at the time were vulnerable to DROWN because SSLv2 had not been removed or disabled.


One of the most interesting — certainly one of the most controversial — features of TrueCrypt is called plausible deniability, protection in case a user is "compelled" to turn over the encrypted volume's password. When the user creates a TrueCrypt volume, he/she chooses whether to create a standard or hidden volume. A standard volume has a single password, while a hidden volume is created within a standard volume and uses a second password. As shown in Figure 25, the unallocated (free) space in a TrueCrypt volume is always filled with random data, thus it is impossible to differentiate a hidden encrypted volume from a standard volume's free space.


Having nothing to do with TrueCrypt, but having something to do with plausible deniability and devious crypto schemes, is a new approach to holding password cracking at bay dubbed Honey Encryption. With most of today's crypto systems, decrypting with a wrong key produces digital gibberish while a correct key produces something recognizable, making it easy to know when a correct key has been found. Honey Encryption produces fake data that resembles real data for every key that is attempted, making it significantly harder for an attacker to determine whether they have the correct key or not; thus, if an attacker has a credit card file and tries thousands of keys to crack it, they will obtain thousands of possibly legitimate credit card numbers. See "'Honey Encryption' Will Bamboozle Attackers with Fake Secrets" (Simonite) for some general information or "Honey Encryption: Security Beyond the Brute-Force Bound" (Juels & Ristenpart) for a detailed paper.


As a slight aside, another way that people try to prove that their new crypto scheme is a good one without revealing the mathematics behind it is to provide a public challenge where the author encrypts a message and promises to pay a sum of money to the first person — if any — who cracks the message. Ostensibly, if the message is not decoded, then the algorithm must be unbreakable. As an example, back in 2011, a $10,000 challenge page for a new crypto scheme called DioCipher was posted and scheduled to expire on 1 January 2013 — which it did. That was the last that I heard of DioCipher. I leave it to the reader to consider the validity and usefulness of the public challenge process.


Before thinking that this is too obscure to worry about, let me point out a field of study called kleptography, the "study of stealing information securely and subliminally" (see "The Dark Side of Cryptography: Kleptography in Black-Box Implementations"). Basically, this is a form of attack from within a cryptosystem itself. From that article comes this whimsical example: Imagine a cryptosystem (hardware or software) that generates PKC key pairs. The private key should remain exclusively within the system in order to prevent improper use and duplication. The public key, however, should be able to be freely and widely distributed since the private key cannot be derived from the public key, as described elsewhere in this document. But, now suppose that a cryptographic back door is embedded into the cryptosystem, allowing an attacker to access or derive the private key from the public key — such as weakening the key generation process at its heart by compromising the random number generators essential to creating strong key pairs. The potential negative impact is obvious.


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